What are club drugs?
“Club Drugs” is a general term for a number of illicit drugs,
primarily synthetic, that are most commonly encountered at nightclubs
and “raves.” The drugs include MDMA (Ecstasy), ketamine, GHB,
GBL, Rohypnol, LSD, PCP, methamphetamine, and, to a lesser extent, psilocybin
mushrooms. The drugs have gained popularity primarily due to the false
perception that they are not as harmful, nor as addictive, as mainstream
drugs such as cocaine and heroin.The dangers associated with this emerging
drug market are that drug quality may vary significantly, and customers
are often unaware that drug substitutions may occur when suppliers are
unable to provide the drug currently in demand. This has been a problem
with MDMA in some markets across the United States because “look-alike”
substances, such as paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and dextromethorphan
(DXM), are sold as MDMA. In addition, in a small percentage of cases,
MDMA tablets have been found to contain other substances such as ketamine,
PCP, caffeine, ephedrine, or methamphetamine. Since club drug users usually
do not have a steady distribution network on which to depend, they unwittingly
risk taking dangerous combinations of drugs. Not only can this lead to
a greater risk of drug overdose, the lack of knowledge regarding what
drug was ingested can complicate the task of emergency medical response
Street Names: Ecstasy, XTC, E, X, and Adam
Primarily illicitly manufactured in and trafficked from Europe, MDMA is
the most popular of the club drugs. DEA reporting indicates widespread
abuse of this drug within virtually every city in the United States. Although
it is primarily abused in urban settings, abuse of this substance also
has been noted in rural communities. Prices in the United States generally
range from $20 to $30 per dosage unit; however, prices as high as $40
per dosage unit have been reported in New York City.
The drug is a synthetic, psychoactive substance possessing stimulant and
mild hallucinogenic properties. Known as the “hug drug” or
“feel good” drug, it reduces inhibitions, eliminates anxiety,
and produces feelings of empathy for others. In addition to chemical stimulation,
the drug reportedly suppresses the need to eat, drink, or sleep. This
enables club-scene users to endure all-night and sometimes 2- to 3-day
parties. Although it can be snorted, injected, and rectally inserted,
MDMA is usually taken orally in tablet form, and its effects last approximately
4 to 6 hours. When taken at raves, where all-night dancing usually occurs,
the drug often leads to severe dehydration and heat stroke in the user
since it has the effect of “short-circuiting” the body’s
temperature signals to the brain
.An MDMA overdose is characterized by a rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure,
faintness, muscle cramping, panic attacks, and, in more severe cases,
loss of consciousness or seizures. One of the side effects of the drug
is jaw muscle tension and teeth grinding. As a consequence, MDMA users
will often suck on pacifiers to help relieve the tension. The most critical,
life-threatening response to MDMA is hyperthermia or excessive body heat.
Recent reports of MDMA-related deaths were associated with core body temperatures
ranging from 107 to 109 degrees Fahrenheit. Many rave clubs now provide
cooling centers or cold showers so participants can lower their body temperatures.
The long-term effects of MDMA are still under evaluation; however, research
by the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, in 2001
directly measured the effects of the drug on the human brain. The study
revealed that the drug causes damage to the neurons (nerve cells) that
utilize serotonin to communicate with other neurons in the brain, and
that recreational MDMA users risk permanent brain damage that may manifest
itself in depression, anxiety, memory loss, learning difficulties, sleep
disorders, sexual dysfunction, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Current
research indicates that MDMA also affects other neurotransmitter systems,
such as dopamine and acetylcholine. MDMA is toxic to human brain cells;
there is absolutely no “window of safety” between a dose of
MDMA found in a single tablet sold on the street and the threshold dose
that causes brain cell death in humans. While cell death occurs from the
first exposure to MDMA, its functional effects may not be seen for months.
In addition to the dangers posed by MDMA, incidents involving “look-alike”
tablets containing substances such as PMA, methamphetamine, and methamphetamine/ketamine
are increasing. Tablets containing MDMA in combination with other illicit
drugs, such as phencyclidine (PCP), have also been encountered. Users
are unaware of the dangers posed by these drugs and unknowingly ingest
potentially dangerous or even lethal amounts.
Street Names: K, Special K, and Cat Valium
Marketed as a dissociative general anesthetic for human and veterinary
use, the only known source of ketamine is via diversion of pharmaceutical
products. Recent press reports indicate that a significant number of veterinary
clinics are being robbed specifically for their ketamine stock. DEA reporting
indicates that a major source of ketamine in the United States is product
diverted from pharmacies in Mexico. Ketamine liquid can be injected, applied
to smokable material, or consumed in drinks. The powdered form is made
by allowing the solvent to evaporate, leaving a white or slightly off-white
powder that, once pulverized, looks similar to cocaine. The powder can
be put into drinks, smoked, or dissolved and then injected. Prices average
$20 to $25 per dosage unit.
Ketamine produces physical effects similar to PCP, with the visual effects
of LSD. Use of the drug can cause delirium, amnesia, depression, and long-term
memory and cognitive difficulties. Due to its dissociative effect, it
is reportedly used as a date-rape drug.
(gamma hydroxybutyric acid)
Street Names: Liquid Ecstasy, Scoop, Easy Lay, Georgia Home
Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid X, and Goop
GHB is a central nervous system depressant banned by the Food and Drug
Administration in 1990. Originally sold in health food stores, GHB was
marketed as a releasing agent for growth hormones that would stimulate
In lower doses, GHB causes drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, and visual disturbances.
At higher dosages, unconsciousness, seizures, severe respiratory depression,
and coma can occur. Overdoses usually require emergency room treatment,
including intensive care for respiratory depression and coma.
GHB generates feelings of euphoria and intoxication. Some users also report
that it is an aphrodisiac. It is often used as a chemical method of counteracting
the stimulant effect of MDMA. GHB is primarily available in liquid form,
although it is sometimes encountered as a powder. It is highly soluble,
and is often added to spring water or concealed in mouthwash bottles.
Due to its salty taste, flavorings are often added, and it is sometimes
passed off as a high-carbohydrate health drink. GHB is usually sold by
the capful, and sells for $5 to $25 per cap. GHB is often added to alcohol,
which enhances its effect and increases the potential for respiratory
distress. Although it is not the primary reason for its abuse, GHB has
been used in the commission of sexual assaults because it renders the
victim incapable of resisting, and may cause memory problems that could
complicate case prosecution.
GBL is a chemical used in many industrial cleaners, and is the precursor
chemical for the manufacture of GHB. As with GHB, GBL can be added to
water and is nearly undetectable.GBL also is converted by dehydrogenase
in the gastrointestinal tract to produce GHB. As a consequence, some partygoers
drink small quantities of GBL straight. This often causes a severe physical
reaction, usually through the violent regurgitation of the fluid. These
chemicals increase the effects of alcohol, and can cause respiratory distress,
seizures, coma, and death.
Street Names: Roofies, Rophies, Roche, Forget-me Pill, Circles,
Mexican Valium, Rib, Roach-2, Roopies, Rope, Ropies, Ruffies, and Roaches
Rohypnol, most commonly known as a date-rape drug, continues to be abused
among teenagers and young adults, usually at raves and nightclubs.
Rohypnol is marketed by Hoffman-La Roche Inc., and is legally sold in
Latin America and Europe as a short-term treatment for insomnia, and as
a preanesthetic medication. One of the significant effects of the drug
is anterograde amnesia, a factor that strongly contributed to its inclusion
in the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996. Anterograde
amnesia is a condition in which events that occurred while under the influence
of the drug are forgotten. Rohypnol is available as a .5-milligram and
1-milligram oblong tablet, as well as a 1-milligram per milliliter injectable
solution. Hoffman-La Roche phased out the 2-milligram dose tablet from
1996 to 1997, and is currently phasing out the round, white 1-milligram
tablet. The licit market for the drug is currently supplied with a 1-milligram
dose in an olive green, oblong tablet, imprinted with the number 542.
The new tablet includes a dye that, according to Hoffman-La Roche, will
be visible if it is slipped into a drink.
In addition to the chemically induced amnesia, Rohypnol often causes decreased
blood pressure, drowsiness, visual disturbances, dizziness, confusion,
gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary retention. Users of the drug
report effects similar to intoxication, yet claim that they wake up the
next morning without a hangover. Adding to the popularity of the drug
is the perception that the drug cannot be detected in a urinalysis. While
the drug can be detected (2-milligram doses can be detected within 72
hours of ingestion), it does break down very quickly, and many commercial
toxicological screens do not detect flunitrazepam. In sexual assault cases,
forensic laboratories need to screen for the flunitrazepam metabolite,
7-amino-flunitrazepam, using gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry.
(d-lysergic acid diethylamide)
Street Names: Acid, Boomers, Yellow Sunshines, Cid, Doses,
LSD is a powerful hallucinogenic compound that is readily available at
concerts and raves. LSD is primarily manufactured illegally within the
United States by a limited number of chemists operating in Northern California,
and more recently in the Midwest. Reports suggest that some localized
production occurs with limited distribution networks around the country.
LSD generally sells for $5 or $6 per dosage unit, although some DEA field
divisions report prices as low as $1, and as high as $12.
LSD manufacturing is a time-consuming, complex chemical process and a
solid background in chemistry is essential. Although the synthesis of
LSD does not require a large quantity of precursor chemicals, the difficulty
in obtaining precursors limits the number of independent manufacturers.
Pure LSD is a clear or white, odorless crystalline material that is water-soluble.
Liquid LSD is primarily associated with mid-level distribution. LSD in
liquid or crystal form generally is sold in plastic film canisters or,
occasionally, in small, opaque plastic bottles to prevent oxidation. Liquid
LSD is mixed with a binding agent and pressed into pills (“microdots”
that are only 3/32 of an inch or smaller); distributed in thin squares
of gelatin (“window panes”); distributed in breath mint vials
and treated sugar cubes; or dissolved and diluted and applied to blotter
paper. Since variations in the manufacturing of LSD may result in an off-white
color, the finished product is often applied to off-white, tan, or yellow
paper with colorful designs to mask the impurities. The most common method
of distributing LSD is blotter paper, and there may be as many as 80 street
names for the drug, based upon the designs on the papers.
In addition to hallucinations, LSD users may experience panic, confusion,
suspicion, and anxiety. Flashbacks can occur even after the user has stopped
taking the drug. Most users of LSD voluntarily decrease or stop using
it over time, since it does not produce the same compulsive, drug-induced
behavior of cocaine and heroin.
Street Names: Speed, Ice, Chalk, Meth, Crystal, Crank, Fire,
Methamphetamine has emerged as an alternative to MDMA at clubs and raves.
Traditionally considered the “poor-man’s” cocaine, methamphetamine
is a central nervous system stimulant. Once under the almost exclusive
control of outlaw motorcycle gangs, the majority of the methamphetamine
is produced by Mexican national traffickers in large clandestine laboratories
in Mexico and California, and shipped across the country in cars and trucks.
A significant quantity also is produced by independent “mom and
pop” laboratory operators, particularly in the Midwest. While the
drug remains a concern in the West, Southwest, and Midwest, there are
strong indications that the drug’s impact has spread into the Southeast
and Northeast. While not as popular as some of the other synthetic drugs
associated with clubs and raves, methamphetamine could make its impact
felt in the urban environments of these areas. Prices for methamphetamine
vary greatly across the country, but generally range from $20 to $200
per gram, and $400 to $3000 per ounce.
Methamphetamine is a white, bitter-tasting, soluble crystalline powder.
Methamphetamine abuse can lead to memory loss, aggressive behavior, violence,
psychotic and paranoid behavior, and potential cardiac and neurological
damage. Methamphetamine is neurotoxic, and users may suffer a significant
reduction in dopamine transporters. If methamphetamine is supplied by
small-scale, amateur laboratory operators, there is a strong possibility
that the drug may contain toxic chemical adulterants.
Methamphetamine can be smoked, snorted, injected, or orally ingested.
The injection of methamphetamine can contribute to higher rates of infectious
disease, especially hepatitis, HIV, and AIDS. At least three DEA investigations
uncovered the use, or attempted acquisition of pill-presses to convert
methamphetamine powder into pill form. While this is not indicative of
a general trend, there is a strong likelihood that this may become the
preferred method of distributing methamphetamine. Generally, club drug
users already use drugs that are in pill form, and wish to avoid the stigmas
that come with the use of drugs such as cocaine and heroin (intravenous
injections, track marks, etc.).
The importation of Southeast Asian methamphetamine tablets, imported primarily
through the mail, is increasing. Produced mainly by the United Wa State
Army, the largest heroin and methamphetamine trafficking group in Burma,
the tablets, which weigh approximately 90 milligrams, typically contain
betwen 25 and 30 milligrams of methamphetamine, from 45 to 65 milligrams
of caffeine, and the remainder is binders. These tablets are called “Yaba.”
Although it is believed that the tablets are trafficked primarily by ethnic
Thais or Laotians for use in the Asian community, it is likely that larger
amounts will be smuggled into the United States as demand increases outside
The crystalline form of methamphetamine, known as “ice” or
“glass,” is gaining popularity. Converted from powder by criminal
elements in Southeast Asia, Mexico, and the United States, ice traditionally
was used in Hawaii and southern California. More recently, its use has
spread along the West Coast and Southwest Border area.
Street Names: Angel Dust, Crystal, Hog, Supergrass, Killer
Joints, Ozone, Wack, Embalming Fluid, and Rocket Fuel.
In its pure form, PCP is a white crystalline powder that is readily dissolved
in water or pressed into tablets. Most PCP contains contaminants from
its makeshift manufacture, resulting in a color ranging from tan to brown,
and consistency varying from crystalline powder to a gummy mass. PCP usually
is sprayed onto a leafy material and smoked, or is used to adulterate
commercially manufactured cigarettes. PCP tablets sell from $5 to $15
each, powder for $20 to $30 per gram, and liquid for $200 to $600 per
ounce. Dipped cigarettes reportedly sell for $5 to $20 each.
Reports of PCP abuse in nightclubs and raves are not widespread; however,
its ready availability and the club drug culture may set the stage for
another resurgence of the drug.
PCP is a Schedule II drug under the CSA.
Street Names: 2CB, Venus, Bromo, Nexus, Spectrum, BDMPEA,
Toonies, and MFT.
Although reports of Nexus (2CB) abuse are sporadic, this drug could emerge
as a significant drug in the rave culture. Reports indicate that it has
become popular in Germany and Switzerland, and its effects (enhancement
of visual and auditory perception, increased sexual desire, and heightened
senses of taste and touch) may appeal to the U.S. rave culture. Nexus
was once legally available in South Africa, and much of the trafficking
of the drug originated from there; however, reports now indicate that
it is clandestinely manufactured in the Netherlands. The DEA Washington
Field Division reports that Nexus has been seized by the Richmond District
Office, and that the drug is starting to appear in clubs in Washington,
DC. Since 1999, seizures of Nexus have been made in Illinois, Kansas,
Missouri, Maine, South Dakota, Nevada, and Virginia.
Nexus is generally available in pill, capsule, or powder form. It is ten
times more powerful than MDMA, with a typical dosage unit ranging from
5 to 10 milligrams. The drug has serious side effects, including confusion,
cardiovascular disturbances, and dehydration. Usually sold as MDMA, Nexus
prices range from $25 to $30 per pill.
Street Name: Shrooms, Mushies, and Mexican Magic Mushrooms.
Although they are not as popular as the synthetic drugs, psilocybin mushrooms
are encountered at raves, clubs, and increasingly on college campuses.
Due to the difficulty in growing and storing mushrooms, suppliers are
usually independent operators who distribute their product locally. Prices
for mushrooms vary, but generally cost $20 per 1/8 ounce, and $100 to
$150 per ounce.
Mushrooms can be ingested alone or in combination with alcohol or illegal
drugs. The mushrooms can be soaked or boiled in water to make tea, and
often are cooked and added to other foods to mask their bitter taste.
Although mushroom potency varies, they generally contain 0.2 percent to
0.4 percent psilocybin, and only a trace amount of psilocyn. Although
both chemicals can be manufactured, DEA reporting at this time does not
indicate that this is taking place. Psilocybin is broken down by the body
to produce psilocyn, which may be the source of the mind-altering effects
of the drug. The physical effects of the mushrooms appear within 20 minutes
of ingestion, and last approximately 6 hours. These effects include nausea,
vomiting, muscle weakness, yawning, drowsiness, tearing, facial flushing,
enlarged pupils, sweating, and lack of coordination. Other physical effects
include dizziness, diarrhea, dry mouth, and restlessness. Information
published on a number of rave Internet sites indicates that, while mushrooms
are used at clubs, they provide no energy for the dancer, and affect coordination.
Most users experience profound relaxation and the lack of desire to move.
The psychological and physical effects of the drug include changes to
audio, visual, and tactile senses. Colors reportedly appear brighter,
and users report a crossing of the senses, such as “seeing a sound”
and “hearing a color.” Users often report a sense of detachment
from their body and a greater feeling of unity with their surroundings.
Furthermore, the high is described as a more natural sensation than that
supplied by synthetic hallucinogens. A large dose of the drug produces
hallucinations and an inability to discern fantasy from reality. This
sometimes leads to panic reactions and psychosis. No evidence of physical
dependence exists, although tolerance does develop when mushrooms are
ingested continuously over a short period of time. Individuals tolerant
to LSD also show tolerance to mushrooms.
In one of the more significant trafficking cases, on November 18, 1999,
the DEA Medford, Oregon, Resident Office, in conjunction with the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, the Internal Revenue Service, and state and local
law enforcement authorities, reported the seizure of an indoor psilocybin
mushroom growing operation. This operation resulted in the seizure of
66 pounds of dried mushrooms and 100 pounds of fresh mushrooms. The investigation
revealed that the operator supplied psilocybin mushrooms to Oregon, California,
Washington, New York, Nevada, Hawaii, Florida, Vermont, North Carolina,
New Mexico, and Canada.
are people introduced to club drugs?
Their peers introduce many people to club drugs on the night club or rave
scene, they often try these because their friends are using them, and
they think drugs are safe to use.
to contact if someone close to you has a problem with drugs:
The Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse's hotline at
1-800-832-9623or your local council.